Task-specific training constitutes a core element for evidence-based rehabilitation strategies targeted at improving upper extremity activity after stroke. Its combination with additional treatment strategies and neurotechnology-based solutions could further improve patients’ outcomes. Here, we studied the effect of gamified robot-assisted upper limb motor training on motor performance, skill learning, and transfer with respect to a non-gamified control condition with a group of chronic stroke survivors. The results suggest that a gamified training strategy results in more controlled motor performance during the training phase, which is characterized by a higher accuracy (lower deviance), higher smoothness (lower jerk), but slower speed. The responder analyses indicated that mildly impaired patients benefited most from the gamification approach. In conclusion, gamified robot-assisted motor training, which is personalized to the individual capabilities of a patient, constitutes a promising investigational strategy for further improving motor performance after a stroke.